SS Technology Forum

SS Technology Forum

Computer Migration - Things to Consider

Here are a few points which you can consider while doing computer migration. These points are applicable to all migrations irrespective of the migration tool (ADMT, NetIQ, Quest etc)

Active Directory User Migration

Here is a graphical representation of the high level steps involved in an Active Directory migration using ADMT

User Migration and Merging Using Quest Migration Manager

Pre-creating user account in the target domain is a common scenario these days due to single-sign-on solution, HR management procedure etc

Microsoft Right Management Service (RMS)

Rights Management Service (RMS) is an add-on to many RMS aware applications. In this article my main focus is to explain how we can utilize RMS technology with Exchange 2003 and how we can take advantage of RMS technology to increase the email security

Microsoft ISA Server

I am sure we have all either encountered or heard of this "problem" one time or another if the ISA Server is part of the Active Directory Domain. Is it a problem?

Tuesday, July 5, 2016

Configuring Deepnet Security SafeID OATH Token with Microsoft Azure MFA Server

Related Blogs:

Configuring YubiKey / Yubico OATH Token with Microsoft Azure MFA Server - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2016/06/configuring-yubikey-yubico-oath-token.html

Azure MFA with pGina and Local Authentication - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2015/09/azure-mfa-with-pgina.html

Azure MFA Server –Authentication Types (Part I) - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2016/05/azure-mfa-serverauthentication-type.html

Azure MFA Server –Authentication Types (Part II) - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2016/06/azure-mfa-server-authentication-type.html

Microsoft Azure MFA on-premises server supports a time based OATH (OATH – TOTP) third party tokens.  This is an alternative to using the Azure Authenticator Mobile App as an OATH token.  You can see other MFA authentication options in my Azure MFA Server–Authentication Types (Part I) and Azure MFA Server–Authentication Types (Part II) blogs.  The OATH tokens can be added or imported prior to being associated with a user.  Administrators can associate users and tokens in the Multi-Factor Authentication Server  or the User Portal.  Users can associate themselves with an OATH token during User Portal enrollment or using the OATH Token menu option when the User Portal is configured to provide this functionality.    A bulk token import and configuration is also supported by MFA Server .  An administrator can import OATH Token records from an input  file .  The secret keys must be in Base32 format

This blog provides step-by-step instructions in configuring Deepnet SafeID OATH token with Microsoft Azure MFA server.  I am using DeepNet Security's SafeID Classic model for this testing.  You can review different token models and details on their website.  

Requirements:

The following are the pre-requirements to complete this configuration. 

  1. Microsoft Azure MFA on-premises server
  2. Deepnet SafeID hardware
  3. Secret Key for your DeepNet SafeID.  You will receive an email with Secret Key after the purchase. 

Review the following Azure MFA Server Authentication Types  blog if you are not familiar with authentication configuration in Azure MFA Server:

Azure MFA Server –Authentication Types (Part I) - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2016/05/azure-mfa-serverauthentication-type.html

Azure MFA Server –Authentication Types (Part II) - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2016/06/azure-mfa-server-authentication-type.html

Azure MFA Server – Configuration for third Party OATH

First step in this process is to add third party OATH Tokens in Azure MFA Server. You can either add these tokens individually or perform a bulk import using an input file. 

To add an OATH token,

  1. Logon to your MFA application server.  Open Multi-Factor Authentication Server UI and Select OATH Token icon.
  2. Click Add option from OATH Token window.
  3. image_thumb23
  4. Enter your Secret Key token Details
    1. Serial NumberRequired.  Enter the  serial number of your SafeID. This will be in the back of the Secret Keyas shown below or it will be the email you received from DeepNet. 
    2. image
    3. Secret KeyRequired. This is the Secret Key (Base32).  You have to receive this information from DeepNet.    You will receive an email from Deepnet with Secret Key after the purchase
    4. Manufacturer Optional.  Enter DeepNet Security as the manufacturer.
    5. ModelOptional.  Enter SafeID as model type. 
    6. Start dateOptional
    7. Expiration dateOptional
    8. Time intervalRequired. Select 60 seconds. 
    9. Username:  Associate a user with this OATH token.  You can manually enter the username or Select User option to identify a user. 
    10. image
    11. Click OK to complete.  The Synchronize OATH Token dialog will prompt for the current OATH code to synchronize the OATH token and verify the configuration.
    12. image
    13. Enter the current code from DeepNet SafeID from the Synchronize OATH Token window to complete token configuration in MFA Server.  Click OK
    14. image

Note1: MFA server validates the OATH code against the OATH token secret key and synchronizes the OATH token's time if they are valid.  If there are not valid, you will see the following error message:

image_thumb38

Note2: Azure Multi-Factor Authentication Server supports bulk import of token records by using an input CSV file.   The file must be in a supported format and may be partially or fully encrypted with a password. 

Sample Input File

To perform a bulk import,

image

Note3: you may receive the following error message when you click on Import button. There is an update/hotfix for this issue. 

Unhandled exception has occurred in your application.  If you click Continue, the application will ignore this error and attempt to continue.  If you click Quit, the application will close immediately. 

Could not load file or assembly ‘PfPskcClr, Version=0.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKey Token=null’ or one of its dependencies.  A strongly-named assembly is required.  (Exception from HRRESULT:0X8013100)

image

Azure MFA Server – End User Validation Using DeepNet SafeID OATH Token

The final step in this process is to validate the DeepNet SafeID configuration and authentication experience from an end user perspective. 

To configure OATH token as the authentication type for an end user:

  1. From Multi-Factor Authentication Server UI, Select Users icon
  2. From right pane, open the user properties by double clicking the user object.
  3. This will open User Properties / Edit User  window as shown below.  Make sure that the OATH Token is selected as the authentication type for this test user. 
  4. image
  5. To validate this configuration, select out test user object and from the bottom of the window, select Test option.  
  6. image
  7. User will be prompted for first /primary authentication using a user name and password. Enter the User name and Password for the user, then click Test
  8. image
  9. Then it will prompt you for the secondary authentication.  In this scenario, it the OATH Code.image_thumb52
  10. Get the current OATH code from your DeepNet SafeID. 
  11. image
  12. Enter the current code in the OATH Code window in the MFA application .  Click OK
  13. image
  14. You will see the authentication status/result as shown below: 
  15. image_thumb49

Related Blogs:

Configuring YubiKey / Yubico OATH Token with Microsoft Azure MFA Server - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2016/06/configuring-yubikey-yubico-oath-token.html

Azure MFA with pGina and Local Authentication - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2015/09/azure-mfa-with-pgina.html

Azure MFA Server –Authentication Types (Part I) - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2016/05/azure-mfa-serverauthentication-type.html

Azure MFA Server –Authentication Types (Part II) - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2016/06/azure-mfa-server-authentication-type.html

Monday, June 27, 2016

Configuring YubiKey / Yubico OATH Token with Microsoft Azure MFA Server

Related blogs:

Configuring Deepnet Security SafeID OATH Token with Microsoft Azure MFA Server  - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2016/07/configuring-deepnet-security-safeid.html

Azure MFA with pGina and Local Authentication - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2015/09/azure-mfa-with-pgina.html

Azure MFA Server –Authentication Types (Part I) - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2016/05/azure-mfa-serverauthentication-type.html

Azure MFA Server –Authentication Types (Part II) - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2016/06/azure-mfa-server-authentication-type.html

Microsoft Azure MFA on-premises server supports a time based OATH (OATH – TOTP) third party tokens.  This is an alternative to using the Azure Authenticator Mobile App as an OATH token.  You can see other MFA authentication options in my Azure MFA Server–Authentication Types (Part I) and Azure MFA Server–Authentication Types (Part II) blogs.  The OATH tokens can be added or imported prior to being associated with a user.  Administrators can associate users and tokens in the Multi-Factor Authentication Server  or the User Portal.  Users can associate themselves with an OATH token during User Portal enrollment or using the OATH Token menu option when the User Portal is configured to provide this functionality.    A bulk token import and configuration is also supported by MFA Server .  An administrator can import OATH Token records from an input  file .  The secret keys must be in Base32 format.  This blog provides step-by-step instructions in configuring YubiKey OATH token with Microsoft Azure MFA server

Requirements:

The following are the pre-requirements to complete this configuration. 

  1. Microsoft Azure MFA on-premises server
  2. YubiKey hardware
  3. YubiKey Personalization Tool
  4. YubiCo Authenticator Application

YubiKey Personalization Tool – Installation and Configuration

Microsoft Azure MFA server supports only the OATH TOTP (time-based) tokens.  So you need to make sure that your YubiKey is in Yubico OTP Mode using the YubiKey Personalization Tool. Other configurations are optional for Microsoft Azure MFA server configuration and testing. 

The YubiKey Personalization Tool can be used to program the two configuration slots. Also, it can be used to personalize the YubiKey in the following modes:

  • Yubico OTP
  • OATH-HOTP
  • Static Password
  • Challenge-Response

Download YubiKey Personalization Tool and run yubikey-personalization-gui-3.1.24.exe  file to compete the tool installation. 

  1. Insert YubiKey into the USB port.  You may see the Device Setup windows as shown below.  Complete the drive installation process.  image
  2. Open YubiKey Personalization Tool. Make sure:
    1. YubiKey Personalization Tool has successfully identified your YubiKey. 
    2. image
    3. Yubico OTP displayed as supported method in Features Supported section. 
    4. image
  3. You will see all the current OTP configuration in Yubico OTP tab shown below. I am going to a use the default configuration for this testing. 
  4. image

YubiCo Authenticator Application – Installation and Configuration

Download YubiCo Authenticator Application and run yubioath-desktop-3.0.1-win.exe file to complete the application installation. 

  1. Open YubiCo Authenticator Application
  2. From File menu, select Add option (File –> Add)
  3. image
  4. From the New Credential window:
    1. Enter Credential Name – An identifier or a display name for the credential.
    2. Secret Key – It is a Base32 key. Review this If you are not familiar with supported numbers or characters in Base32 encoding. 
    3. Select Time based (TOTP) option.  Microsoft Azure MFA server supports only the OATH TOTP (time-based) tokens. 
    4. Number of digits – You can select 6 or 8 digits as OATH token length.
    5. image
    6. Require touch -  If you select this option, end user has to touch the YubiKey to generate an OATH token.  User will prompted with the following message:
    7. image
    8. Click OK to save the configuration
    9. image
    10. You will see the newly add account in the Yubico Authenticator window. 
    11. image

Now we have completed the YubiKey account configuration. We can move on to Azure MFA server to configure the OATH token.

Azure MFA Server - Configuration for third Party OATH

Review the following Azure MFA Server Authentication Types  blog if you are not familiar with authentication configuration in Azure MFA Server:

Azure MFA Server –Authentication Types (Part I) - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2016/05/azure-mfa-serverauthentication-type.html

Azure MFA Server –Authentication Types (Part II) - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2016/06/azure-mfa-server-authentication-type.html

To add OATH Token in Azure MFA Server,

  1. Open Multi-Factor Authentication Server UI and Select OATH Token icon.
  2. Click Add option from OATH Token window.
  3. image
  4. Enter your YubiKey token Details
    1. Serial Number – Required.  Enter the YubiKey serial number. This will be in the back of the Yubikey as shown below:
    2. image
    3. Secret Key – Required. This is the Secret Key (Base32) you have configured using the Authentication Application. 
    4. Manufacturer – Optional.  Enter Youbico as the manufacturer.
    5. Model – Optional.  Enter your YubiKey model type. 
    6. Start date – Optional
    7. Expiration date – Optional
    8. Time interval – Required. You can select the default 30 seconds value.  By default, YubiKey changes the 6-8 digit code  every 30 seconds. 
    9. Username:  Select the user for this OATH token.  You manually enter the username or Select User option to identify a user. 
    10. Click OK to complete.  The Synchronize OATH Token dialog will prompt for the current OATH code to synchronize the OATH token and verify the configuration.
    11. image
    12. Generate a new OATH from Yubico Authentication app using the imagebutton. 
    13. image
    14. Enter this code in the Synchronize OATH Token window to complete token configuration in MFA Server. 

Note1: MFA server validates the OATH code against the OATH token secret key and synchronizes the OATH token's time if they are valid.  If there are not valid, you will see the following error message:

image

Note2: Azure Multi-Factor Authentication Server supports bulk import of token records by using an input CSV file.   The file must be in a supported format and may be partially or fully encrypted with a password. 

Sample Input File

To perform a bulk import,

  1. Select OATH Token icon and select Import.
  2. Select the input file and click Import.

image_thumb[19]

Note3: you may receive the following error message when you click on Import button. There is an update/hotfix for this issue. 

Unhandled exception has occurred in your application.  If you click Continue, the application will ignore this error and attempt to continue.  If you click Quit, the application will close immediately. 

Could not load file or assembly ‘PfPskcClr, Version=0.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKey Token=null’ or one of its dependencies.  A strongly-named assembly is required.  (Exception from HRRESULT:0X8013100)

image_thumb[21]

Azure MFA Server – End User Validation Using YubiKey OATH Token

The final step in this process is to validate the YubiKey configuration and authentication experience from an end user perspective. 

To configure OATH token as the authentication type for an end user:

  1. From Multi-Factor Authentication Server UI, Select Users icon
  2. From right pane, open the user properties by double clicking the user object.
  3. This will open User Properties / Edit User  window as shown below.  Make sure that the OATH Token is selected as the authentication type for this test user. 
  4. image
  5. To validate this configuration, select out test user object and from the bottom of the window, select Test option.  
  6. image
  7. User will be prompted for first /primary authentication using a user name and password. Enter the User name and Password for the user, then click Test
  8. image
  9. Then it will prompt you for the secondary authentication.  In this scenario, it the OATH Code.image
  10. To generate a new OATH code, open Yubico Authenticator App and  pressing the imagebutton .  The OATH code will be displayed as shown below:
  11. image
  12. Enter the current OATH code in the OATH Code in the MFA application window.  Click OKimage
  13. You will see the authentication status/result as shown below: 
  14. image

Related blogs:

Configuring Deepnet Security SafeID OATH Token with Microsoft Azure MFA Server  - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2016/07/configuring-deepnet-security-safeid.html

Azure MFA with pGina and Local Authentication - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2015/09/azure-mfa-with-pgina.html

Azure MFA Server –Authentication Types (Part I) - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2016/05/azure-mfa-serverauthentication-type.html

Azure MFA Server –Authentication Types (Part II) - http://portal.sivarajan.com/2016/06/azure-mfa-server-authentication-type.html

Thursday, June 23, 2016

Advanced Threat Analytics–Attack Simulation and Demo–Part1

Advanced Threat Analytics–Attack Simulation and Demo–Part1

Advanced Threat Analytics–Attack Simulation and Demo–Part2

Advanced Threat Analytics–Attack Simulation and Demo–Part3

Microsoft Advanced Threat Analytics (ATA) is an user and entity behavior analytics solution to identify and protect protect organizations from advanced targeted attacks (APTs).  You can read more information about Microsoft Advanced Threat Analytics (ATA) here.  The purpose of this blog is to provide a few methods which can be used to simulate and demonstrate some of the basic attacks for demo and testing purpose.

Suspicious Activity Simulation #1ATA Gateway Stopped Communicating 

We will start with the most obvious one! – ATA communication issue.   In this scenario, I am using ATA Light Weight Gateway (LWGW).  In this case Microsoft Advanced Threat Analytics Gateway (ATAGateway) service should be running on Domain Controllers. 

To simulate this scenario,

  1. Identify all Domain Controllers from the forest/domain. You can use the following DSQUERY command to get all DCs from the domain.  
    • DsQuery Server -Forest
  2. Stop the ATAGateway service remotely
    • Here are a few scripts -  Script1 or Script2 or Script3 – if you want to go a script based approach
    • Or we can use a simple SC command – SC \\Lab-DC01 stop ATAGateway
    • image

You will receive the following high alert – ATA Gateway Stopped Communicating – in Health Center. 

image

Suspicious Activity Simulation #2- Honey Token Account Activities

In general, the Honey Token accounts are non-interactive accounts.  These accounts can be dummy accounts for detect malicious activities.

To simulate this scenario,

  1. Create two 2 user accounts in Active Directory (ATA-Test1 and ATA-Test2)
  2. Add ATA-Test2 to Domain Admins group
  3. Get the SID of ATA-Test1 and ATA-Test2 using PowerShell or DSQUERY command
    • dsquery * -filter (samaccountname=ata-test1) -attr objectsid (Reference)
    • Get-ADUser Ata-test1 -Properties objectSID (Reference)
  4. Add this SID as Honey token accounts (ATA Console –> Configuration –> Detection –> Honeytoken Account SIDs). Save the configuration. 
  5. image
  6. Establish an integrative logon session using these accounts. You can RDP into a machine use these accounts

Honey Token accounts (non-sensitive)

You will receive the following alert/email with recommended actions in the ATA console. 

image

Honey Token accounts (Sensitive)

Since ATA-Test2 account is a domain admin account, you will receive the same alert with "Sensitive (S )" indicating that this account is a high privileged account in Active Directory. 

image

Suspicious Activity Simulation #3 – Massive Object Deletion

Bulk object deletion can be a suspicious activity in an Active Directory environment.  ATA can alert alert you based on massive object deletion activities. 

To simulate this scenario,

  1. Create a few users in Active directory. Here is a sample PowerShell  script which you can use to create test accounts in Active Directory

Clear
Import-module activedirectory
$pass = ConvertTo-SecureString "MyPassword0!" –asplaintext –force
for ($i=0;$i -lt 100;$i++)
{
$accountname = "Test-Account$i"
Write-Host "Creating $accountname" -NoNewline
New-ADUser –SamAccountName $accountname –name $accountname -OtherAttributes @{'description'="ATA Test User Account"} -Path "OU=Test Accounts,OU=User Accounts,DC=labanddemo,DC=com"
Set-ADAccountPassword –identity $accountname –NewPassword $pass
Write-Host "...Done"
}

  1. Make sure ATA is "learned" about these account.
  2. image
  3. Delete these accounts from Active Directory 

You will receive the Massive Object Deletion alert in the ATA console right away as shown below. 

image

Suspicious Activity Simulation #4 - Reconnaissance using DNS

The DNS or name resolution information in a network would be  useful reconnaissance information. In general, DNS data contains a list of all the servers and workstations and the mapping to their IP addresses. Verifying this  information may provide attackers with a detailed view of the environment allowing attackers to focus their efforts on the relevant entities. 

For this simulation, the plan is to perform a DNS zone lookup using NSLOOKUP LS command. 

To simulate this scenario,

  1. Logon to a remote server. 
  2. Open Command Prompt and run NSLOOKUP command
  3. From the NSLOOKUP window, run LS command to list the DNS zone

image

You will receive the following Reconnaissance using DNS alert the ATA console. 

image

Advanced Threat Analytics–Attack Simulation and Demo–Part1

Advanced Threat Analytics–Attack Simulation and Demo–Part2

Advanced Threat Analytics–Attack Simulation and Demo–Part3

Thursday, June 2, 2016

Azure MFA Server –Authentication Types (Part II)

Azure MFA–Authentication Type (Part I)

Azure MFA–Authentication Type (Part II)

The Microsoft Azure Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) provides various authentication types when using an on-premises MFA server.  The Company Settings section allows the Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) administrator to define company wide settings for all users. 

image_thumb28

The administrators can also make (or override)  individual user configuration from User Section.  

image_thumb30

An end user can make their own sections from the the User Portal.

image_thumb33

In general, the following authentication modes are available when using an on-premises MFA server. The purpose of this blog is to explain each of these authentication types and expected result with screenshots.  

  1. Phone call (Standard)
  2. Phone call (PIN)
  3. Text message (One-way OTP)
  4. Text message (Two-way OTP)
  5. Text message (One-way OTP + PIN)
  6. Text message (Two-way OTP + PIN)
  7. Azure Authenticator application (Standard)
  8. Azure Authenticator application (PIN)
  9. Azure Authenticator application (OATH token)
  10. Third Party OATH token

In this blog, I will be covering the following authentication types. 

  1. Azure Authenticator application (Standard)
  2. Azure Authenticator application (PIN)
  3. Azure Authenticator application (OATH token)
  4. Third Party OATH token

Review Part I of this blog for other authentication type details. 

The Azure Mobile App mode results in a notification being sent to the user's Azure Authenticator mobile app.  There are 2 different modes for Mobile App – Standard and PIN mode. 

Azure Authenticator application  -Standard

In this mode, user will be prompted for primary authentication using a user name and password and the second authentication is when the user receives a notification in the Azure Authenticator mobile app.

image

Expected Result

In Standard Mode, users will prompted to authenticate, deny, or deny and report fraud as shown below:

image

Azure Authenticator application – PIN

The PIN mode enhances the security of the Multi-Factor Authentication by requiring the user enter a PIN in the Azure Authenticator mobile app. 

image

Expected Result

In this mode, user will be prompted for primary authentication using a user name and password and the second authentication is when the user receives a notification in the Azure Authenticator mobile app to enter the PIN number as shown below:

image

Azure Authenticator application - OATH token

Oath Token mode results in the user being prompted for an OATH code to authenticate with Multi-Factor Authentication.  Time-based OATH codes can be generated by the Azure Authenticator Mobile App or a third-party token. We will start with Azure Authenticator Mobile App. As shown in the following screenshot, the OATH Tokens (Enable OATH Tokens) must be enabled in the MFA Server console to display a Time-based OATH codes in Azure Authenticator Mobile App.  keep in mind that the OATH Token method is only supported by RADIUS Authentication and IIS Authentication Form-Based Authentication.

image

After the activation of Mobile App, users can select OATH token mode from the User Portal or an administrator can configure this from a MFA server console. 

image

Expected Result

A Time-based OATH codes will be generated by Azure Authenticator Mobile App as shown below. 

image

This code needs to entered in the respective application to complete the second factor authentication.  image

Third Party OATH token

Azure MFA server supports a time based OATH (OATH – TOTP) third party tokens.  This is an alternative to using the Azure Authenticator mobile app as an OATH token (see the above scenario - Azure Authenticator application  -Standard).  OATH tokens can be added or imported prior to being associated with a user.  Administrators can associate users and tokens in the Multi-Factor Authentication Server  (as shown below) or the User Portal.  Users can associate themselves with an OATH token during User Portal enrollment or using the OATH Token menu option when the User Portal is configured to provide this functionality.    A bulk token import and configuration is also supported by MFA Server .  An administrator can import OATH Token records from an input  file .  The secret keys must be in Base32 format

image

For this scenario, I am using Yubikey 4 (Yukico) OATH token as the third party OATH token.  You need to use Yubico Authentication application to get the OATH code from Yukikey.  Review my Azure MFA and Yubico OATH configuration blog for the configuration details. 

The OATH token option is same as the Azure Authenticator mobile app configuration as shown below:

image

Expected Result

In this scenario, you will be using the Time-based OATH codes generated by Yubico Authenticator application. 

image

This OATH code must be entered in the respective application to complete the second factor authentication. 

image

If you have Azure Mobile App OATH and a third party OATH token active for the same user, both token code will be valid. 

      Azure MFA–Authentication Type (Part I)

      Azure MFA–Authentication Type (Part II)

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